Immunisations and vaccinations

Introduction

Immunity is the ability of the human body to protect itself from infectious disease. For certain preventable infectious diseases, vaccines are given to people to provide immunity similar to that provided by the body.  Immunisations reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases by protecting individuals from contracting them and spreading them to others. This is highlighted in the World Health Organisation YouTube video infographic:

 YouTube video link

National Health Service (NHS) England Area Teams commission immunisation programmes from General Practices (GPs) and other providers. Local public health teams monitor and scrutinise the delivery of the vaccination programmes and must report on how effective they are to the area’s Health and Wellbeing Board. 

NHS Choices has information on immunisations and vaccinations routinely offered to everyone in the UK for free on the NHS. Information on immunity and how vaccines work can be found in the ‘Green Book’ of Immunisation Against Infectious Diseases.

Facts, figures and trends

For information  on immunisation and vaccination in children aged 0-4,please visit the Starting Well chapter.

The World Health Organisation set a 95% target for vaccination coverage which has been adopted by the Department of Health which also set a 90% minimum coverage threshold for local authorities.

Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR)

MMR is the combined vaccine that protects against measles, mumps and rubella. Measles, mumps and rubella are highly infectious, common conditions that can have serious complications, including meningitis, swelling of the brain (encephalitis) and deafness.

The first MMR vaccine is given to children as part of the routine vaccination schedule, usually within a month of their first birthday. A second booster dose is then given before starting school, usually between three and five years of age.

In 2014/15, the number of Bracknell Forest children registered with their GP who had received one dose of the MMR vaccine by 5 years of age was 1,539 (93.6%).

The number receiving two doses by 5 years of age was 1,419 (86.3%).  

Whilst the number receiving the second dose is lower, the gap is closing in 2014/15 following a small dip in the previous period:

Although the first dose of MMR vaccination rates are higher in Bracknell than the England average, these rates drop at the second dose. There would, therefore, be great value in further promoting the uptake of the second dose of the MMR vaccination in order to guarantee that children are fully protected from an early age.

Haemophilus influenzae type b/meningitis C (Hib/MenC) booster

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and meningitis C infections are serious and potentially fatal. They can both cause meningitis and septicaemia (blood poisoning).

In 2014/15, the number of Bracknell Forest children registered with their GP who had received the Hib/MenC vaccine by 5 years of age was 1,525 (92.7%):

For the number of children who received the booster by 2 years please visit ‘starting well-immunisations’

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination programme was introduced in 2008 across the United Kingdom. HPV is the name given to a family of viruses. These are very common and can be spread easily by sexual activity. Although many of these viruses are low-risk, some are associated with cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine protects against cervical cancer and NHS Choices estimates that 400 lives could be saved in the UK each year as a result of implementing this vaccination programme.

Since 2008, all 12-13 year old girls in the UK (school year 8) are offered HPV vaccination through the national HPV immunisation programme which offers three injections over a six month period. This will be routinely reduced to two injections from September 2015 as evidence showed that the antibody response to two doses of the vaccine in adolescent females is as good as a three-dose course.

HPV is the name given to a family of common viruses which are easily by sexual activity. Although many of these viruses are low-risk, some are associated with cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine protects against cervical cancer and NHS Choices estimates that 400 lives could be saved in the UK each year as a result of implementing this vaccination programme.

In 2014/15, the number of girls in Bracknell Forest registered with their GP who had received the HPV vaccine was 558 (88.3%) which is higher than the England and south east region figures for the previous two years:

Want to know more?

NHS Choices – public facing information on immunisations and vaccinations routinely offered to everyone in the UK for free on the NHS.

National Child and Maternal Health Intelligence Network Dynamic Report into Vaccination and Immunisation – aggregate of Bracknell Forest statistics and information about vaccination and immunisation.

Reducing differences in the uptake of immunisations (NICE, 2009) – guidance to support increase in immunisation uptake among those aged under 19 years from groups where uptake is low.

Sexual and reproductive health profile – data and information around the wider area of sexual and reproductive health in young people.

Vaccine Update (Public Health England) - a regular newsletter describing the latest developments in vaccines, and vaccination policies and procedures.  Also available direct to your inbox throuh online subscription.

Vaccination planner – an interactive guide for parents and professionals that can develop a personalised schedule of immunisations and vaccinations tion planner.

Vaccination planner



Go to NHS Choices homepage

 

This page was created on 27 February 2014 and updated on 7 June 2016. Next review due August 2016.

Cite this page:

Bracknell Forest Council. (2016). JSNA – Immunisation and vaccination (5-18 years). Available at: jsna.bracknell-forest.gov.uk/developing-well/children-and-young-peoples-health/immunisation-and-vaccination-5-18-years (Accessed: dd Mmmm yyyy)

 

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